Second Phoenician Cosmogony, From “Cosmotheologies” by Robert Shaw, 1889
Part 1 Here : The First Phoenician Cosmogony and Creation Myth
1. There arose from the wind Kolpia and from his wife Baau, which, being interpreted, is Night, Aeon, and Protogonos, mortal men so named. Aeon procured his food from trees.
From these were descended those two, who were called Genos and Genea, and who lived in Phoenicia. There being great drouths in the country they lifted up their hands to the heavens, to El, or Him, they say, they believed to b e the only God and called him Belsamin, which among the Phoenicians means Lord of Heaven, but among the Greeks is called Zeus.”
“Of the race of Aeon and Protogonos were begotten, again, three mortal children, to whom were the names of Phos, Pyr, and Phlox. These, he says, invented fire by rubbing together pieces of wood and they taught the use of fire.”
4. “They begat sons who in size and stature surpassed the others. Their names were given to the mountains, of which they had possessed themselves so that from them were called the Kasion and the Libanon and the Antilibanon and the Brathu (Thabry.)”.
5. “From these (says he) were born Saminrum, the Hypsuranius, and Usoos. From their mothers they derived their names; women in those times, without restraint, being accustomed to converse with any man whom they happened to meet.
6. “Hypsuranios lived at Tyre and invented the art of building huts with reeds and rushes and papyrus. He rebelled against his brother Usoos, who was the first that invented covering for the body out of skins of such wild animals as he was able to take. There happening violent showers of rain and storms (of wind) the trees at Tyre by mutual friction produced fire and thereby the wood was consumed. Usoos having taken a tree and stripped it of its boughs was the first who undertook to embark upon the sea. He consecrated two pillars to Fire and Wind; and he worshiped them, libating to them the blood of whatever animals he had caught in the chase.”
7. “Now, when these two brothers had died, the people, after having accomplished the libations, consecrated to them staves ; the pillars, however, they worshiped and celebrated a festival annually to their honor.”’
8. “After considerable time there preceded from the race of Hypsuranios, Agreus (the hunter), and Halieus (the fisherman), these being the inventors of hunting and fishing, from them were denominated hunters and fishermen.”
9. “From whom (the hunter and fisherman) were born two brothers the discoverers of iron and of the process of working it. One of them, Khusor, practiced incantations and epodes and divinations. He was Hephaistos (Vulcan). He invented the fish-hook and bait, the line and the light boat. He was also the first of all men, who practiced navigation; wherefore, after his death they revered him as a God and called him Melech, who is Zeus Melichius. Others say that his brother invented the art of building walls of brick.”
10. “After this there were born of the race of these, two youths, namely, Technites, the artisan, and Genios, e’.e., Autochthon (the earth born). These understood the art of mixing straw (rubbish) with the clay of the bricks and of drying the latter in the sun. They moreover invented roofs.”
11. From these other children arose of whom one is called Agros and the other Agrueros or Agrotes. Of the latter there is a wooden statue highly venerated and a temple dedicated to the ox, (Apis) in Phoenicia. By the people of Byblos he is called, pre-eminently the greatest God. These contrived also to place courts before the houses and invented inclosures and underground dwellings” (caves).
12. “From these arose the Agrotai (agriculturists) the Kynegoi (hunters with dogs). They are also called Aletai and Titans.”
13a. ” From these descended Amvnos and Magos (Magros) who taught the art of building unwalled villages and of keeping cattle.”
13b. From these sprung Misor and Sydek, which mean respectively the Free and the Just. These discovered the use of salt.”
14.”From Misor descended Taaut, who invented the original (hieroglyphic) written characters. The Egyptians call him Thoth, the Greeks Hermes. From Sydek arose the Dioskuri or Kabyri or Korybantes or Samothracians. These, they say, were the first who invented the ship.”
15.”From these descended others who discovered botany and the cure for the stings of poisonous animals and formulae of words for exorcising.”
16a.”After these was born a certain Elioun, called the Highest; and a woman called Behuth. These lived near Byblos and of them was begotten Epigeios or Autochthon.”
Contrary to the opinion of some authors on this subject I consider that this second Phoenician Cosmogony connects directly with or is a continuation of the first. The style would appear somewhat more mythological than that of the first ; but we expect such variations in narrative which represents such great duration of time. The first Cosmogony ended with a more general idea of the race of man ; this second gives more particular attention to the Phoenicians.
Of the two personifications brought forward at the start the females Baau is a Greek form of the Hebrew word Bohu, meaning “void;” and corresponding to unlimited space. It is, doubtless, in the sense of being limitless that it has been interpreted Night, for it means not that in the ordinary sense. Colpiah is interpreted ” breath of wind” or more literally “voice of the breath.” This agrees with the interpretation of it given in the text, namely, “wind.” The Hebrew qol means “voice;” and Piah means ” breath” in all the Semitic dialects.
As to the next pair of names Aeon (Aevum, period of time), is for the Hebrew word “holam”, the form hulom or hulomos of which we have seen from Eudemus. As regards Protogonos, the original Phoenician word was perhaps Cadum (Adam) the first or original, as according to the Rabbis. Some, as Renan, see in Aeon and Protogonos, male and female, as Adam and Eve. Their idea of the words thus would be “age,” “fore time,” “race.” The idea of male and female race appears more plainly in Genos and Genea. Some have thought the Hebrew originals for these two words must have been Teraphim and Toledoth, the former, the masculine form, corresponding to Genos and the latter, the female, to Genea. Taraph means to pluck off, whence teroph, fresh leaf, suggests the idea of race. Homer’s comparison of the race of man to falling and budding leaves is based on the same idea. Genos, thus might have reference to some ancestor of the race held in pious memory. The ancient G being C, we have, of course, the name Cain in Genos (root Gen) ; and, if, as some suppose, the whole race of Cain perished in the flood, may we not refer it to Canaan, the third from Adam, as it appears the two forms were occasionally exchanged? Parallel to Teraphim, which corresponds to Genos, is Toledoth, which answers to Genea, a word by which the female generations are expressed in the Bible, especially in the lists of the patriarchs.
The Hebrew Yelid and Moledeth means respectively, son and race, and in the Septuagint, Gen. XXXI., 3, Genea is employed to express Moledeth. Yelid, son, is for Yachid, Monogenes, the only-begotten. Moledeth, then, either corresponds to Thalith, as the persons born to the mother, who bore them, or the meaning of the two words is identical. While the reference in Genos and Genea is directly to race, ancestors, it might be thought also they refer indirectly to cosmogonical principles.
In this connection, I may say Belsamin is used by Plautus as a Punic word signifying Lord of Heaven. Like the Chinese Tien, El has rather reference to the starry firmament than to the sun. Indeed, not only in the sense of the Phoenician, but of the whole Semitic mythology, the word El (Bael) is a symbol or personification of the Cosmos. Belsamin was, therefore, the Lord of the sun as well as the Lord of Heaven. Samh for Shamh, of which Shem is a variation, meant, in the old language, the sun. We meet, therefore, at this very early age of the Phoenician race with the worship, not of the highest cosmogonical principles by whatever name called, but of the Lord of Heaven. This account would, therefore, mark this worship as very ancient among the Phoenicians and among mankind. “The sun-worship,” says one good Christian writer, “can only be explained by supposing the sun to be the symbol and representative of the creative power of God:” and further he says: “The act of creation commenced with the emanation of the Logos, who was the prototype of man.”
We notice now as Philo passes along he dilates to some extent upon the fact that the Greeks, not understanding the names which occur in their own myths, sometimes fell into error. Some think that he now begins a new cosmogonical representation, but not so, it is connected with the preceding part. The metaphysical ideas seem now to be connected with the physical in his representation. Of the race of the Age and the Firstborn were now produced mortal children, to whom the names are given of Light, Fire and Flame. These three names arise the one from the other and it is inferrable they may have been applied to these persons in the history from the cause stated of their having discovered fire by rubbing together chunks of wood, and of their having taught the use of fire. We have, also, mountains next personified, which are themselves the product or birth of the action of fire and water. The names of these mountains Kasion, Libanon, Antilibanon and Brathu or Tabor were the names of the sons of Fire, Flame and Light.
The reference seems very clear to the cosmogonical forces, which produced the mountains, as their offspring, so to speak. Light is in Hebrew ur and or being the same with Hur or Hor in Egyptian. In the plural it is Urim as in Unm and Thumim Lights and Perfections. So Cherub, plural Cherubim; Seraph, plural Seraphim represent, respectively Fire and Flame. Commentators have generally interpreted that passage in Gen. III., 24, where it says: “And God drove Adam out and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubim and a flaming sword, which turned every way to keep the way of the tree of life,” as meaning erect figures with flaming swords.
The name Libanon is pure Semitic, and means the mountain whose tops are covered with snow, accordingly “the white,” “the clear.” Antilibanon, as the form shows is a Greek, name for that mountain called in Hebrew Hermon (Chermon), i.e., spur or termination, interpreted in later times as consecration. But from Deut. III., 9, we learn that the Phoenicians called Hermon Sirion and the Amorites Shenir and in IV, 48, Joshua calls it “Mount Sion, which is Hermon?” Sirion is a word for breastplate. Kasion is supposed to be either the mountain of that name on the Orontes, or else the southern promontory in the farthest extremity of Philistia towards Egypt. The root quazaz, to cut off, Heb., implies that it was high.
The name of the fourth mountain, which is read variously Brathu and Bathru is thought to be a form for which Tabor is a transposition of the letters. The Hebrew modern form is Tabur, which sig. nifies peak, the Greek transcript in the Septuagint being Itabyrion and in Polybius Atabyrion. The form Tabor, however, would seem more naturally to have arisen from To Badpu or To BaSoPt the article being compounded with the word.
Saminrum and Usoos or Yishrael and Eschav:
We now come to the brothers Saminrum and Usoos, the grandchildren of Phos, Pyr and Phlox and the children of those who gave their names to the mountains we have just noticed. Saminrum means the High Celestial and intimates that we are now got into an elevated sphere, for this is a name of one of the Phoenician deities. Movers has, however, shown that, according to the genius of Semitic mythology, the High Celestial can, in a planetary view, only mean Saturn, the highest of the planets ; and, in a cosmogonical view, only the manifesting God, like the Phoenician and Greek Hercules. Usoos is the Greek form of the Phoenician Esav. Philo, moreover, informs us elsewhere that Saminrum was called by the Phoenicians Israel, i.e., God’s Soldier or the straggler with GodFrom all this we can deduce interesting lessons. The idea of the character of Hercules as Saturn becomes more clear as we get the idea of the mutual relation of the brothers from Philo, as compared with the scriptural narrative.
The general research into what may have been the oldest form of the name of God in Western Asia has resulted in the form of Seth as being that most ancient form. This name for God is common to all the Semitic races. His identity with Saturn has been proved, but is thought by some not to have been so ancient as his identity with Sirius or Sothis. These words, however, refer to the same original, dialectically or otherwise varied. It should be borne in mind, in reference to the name Set, that both in the Egyptian and Hebrew it means a pillar, and in a general sense the erect, elevated, high.
It was, doubtless, understood as the same God that the Israelites worshiped for forty years in the wilderness, as according to Amos (V. 26), under the name Chiun; which we know from the Gaelic genealogies to be the same with Evan or Kevan or Cuin or Conn. Movers was the first to prove Kon to be a Phoenician designation of Saturn, in the sense of the establishes instituter and regulator of the law of the universe. The root Seth means to set, to place, establish, etc., just as Caethan or Conn, which is a variation of the same word.
Yechun is the highest of the fallen angels and the name of one of the pillars which Solomon placed in the temple is Iachin. Boaz, the name of the other pillar has been explained by Movers as the “moving,” “advancing’ in which he is doubtless correct; for the Greek substitutes b for the Sanskrit g in many of its words, and our word go is the Greek root ba in Baino ” to go,” “to advance.’ ‘ The root Bo in Boaz, then, would represent the root ba, to advance, in the signification of a champion, Hercules, at least as much as it would the root bo in bous, an ox, in reference to Apis. The God of the Babylonians, Jupiter Belus, was represented by Diodorus as standing and advancing. (Diod. ii, 19. Movers, p. 289.)
The pillars of Hercules at Tyre were called Hamunim, that is, the pillars of the brothers Conn. Pbilo from Sankhuniatho speaks of Ammunea or pillars with antique sacred inscriptions in the temples of the Phoenician deities. A meaning of Anion in Hebrew is pillar and of Amhan in Gaelic is consecrated. On the whole it appears plain that the Amun and Seth of the Egyptians, when properly understood, must have referred to the same deity, either name indicating the idea of the Cosmos, as symbolic of the principal of origination and of order ; but Amun being usually thought of as the invisible God; Seth as the celestial phenomena, principally the sun. The pillars of the brothers in the temple at Tyro are said to have been called after their names respectively; but, however this be, those of Atlas in the far west and of Hercules at Gibraltar appear to have had, at least in the legend, no separate designations.
Usoos was, according to Philo, that one of the brothers who erected the two pillars to Fire and Wind respectively. The first named of these would represent Usoos the last Saminrum. Usoos corresponds more nearly to Seth, in the sense of the hot noonday or afternoon sun ; while Saminrum would correspond to Seth at the times of his genial warmth, when the exercise of his creative power, though not the greatest, yet acts most pleasantly on the human senses. The name Esav or Edom refers more particularly to the sun at the time of day and the season of the year in which he puts forth his greatest heat, as well as his most effectual creative force ; while Saminrum would represent the celestial phenomena, and the cosmogonical forces. Usav-Mars was thus distinguished from Con-Hypsuranios, for the sun in his strength is here, represented as Mars, the God of war ; it is represented, indeed, by Fire ; while I find in the Gaelic language that Conn is a short form for Aedhghan, which is the original form of the Greek word Aigean, another form whereof is Oikean, our ocean. Conn is kind (Ger. children) which is the original of our word wind. Saturn (Saetharchan) is an expanded form of Seth which itself is the original of our word sea ; so that these terms do appear transferable, the cosmogonical forces being found ultimately to be the different operations of the One, as the cosmical phenomena must needs be the different manifestations of the One. An explanation given by Movers, in which Bunsen concurred, seems to me to have been, that either one of the pillars represented, as a whole, either one of the brothers; that ” the pillar consisting of a pointed and detached column with a capital on the top, it was probable that the former represented Usov-Mars and the latter Conn-Hypsuranios. There appears, of course, no salient objection to this probability, and so either pillar would have represented either one of the brothers, while the two would represent different manifestations of character of the two or perhaps ultimately of the one, considered in his different manifestations, and outworkings of character in his different modes and tenses?
Fisherman, Agriculturist, Demiurge, Champion, Etc. :
In reference to Alieus and Agreus, the fisherman and the hunter, the first of these evidently had reference to Sidon (Tsidon, which in the Phoenician would mean a harbor for ships, Tsi, a ship, dnin or don, a harbor; fortification) for the root zud (Tsud) signifies to fish, and ship is fish read backwards ; the same word. It signifies also to hunt so that both names would doubtless have the like local connection. From the root zud comes Zayad, hunting and Zidon, fishing. The representation also implies that fishing and hunting were primitive pursuits of men. Thus, although the roots “to hunt” and “to fish” are different in the Greek they would be very probably near variations of the same root in Sanchuniatho’s Phoenician history, which in the original is not now extant.
The next step in our second Cosmogony shows Khusor (Vulcan) and a brother unnamed, but whom some call Tubal, born of Agreus and Haleus. According to Eudemus Khusor is the Demiurge, the Creator. Here he discovers iron and creates the fish-hook and bait. He is also versed in incantations, songs and divinations. He was, moreover, called Melech (Moloch) : He was the great Melicarthos, the patron of Carthage, and was held in high honor throughout Phoenicia. In connection with his other names he is also called Zeus or Jupiter. If we were fortunate enough to know the history of his brother we might, perhaps, learn whether he had made any such useful discoveries as the fish-hook. But some say he invented the art of building walls of brick. This may seem to have been a paltry discovery compared with that of the fish-hook and bait, but we know that working among iron and producing fish-hooks and baits (of course all know what a bait is) was at least part of the business of this blacksmith god. It is the opinion of some that his unnamed brother only made an improvement in brick making, that before his time sun dried bricks only were used and that he burned them with fire. It is hardly supposable that he had such an artistic and well equipped institution as our modern brick yard amounts to. Out of the whole of this connection the waggish pupil of Euhemerus devised the most absurd of fables, namely, that Melekh taught his people the art of building walls of brick on which account they deified him after his death. He must, indeed, have been abundantly recompensed for the products of his creative skill.
But the same persons who have supposed that Khusor and his brother only made an improvement in brickmaking, seem not to have taken sufficiently into consideration that their own two sons, namely, Technites, the Artisan, and Geinos, the Earth born, made a new improvement in the production of brick, by mixing with the clay what some interpret straw, but I find in the original to mean rubbish. These, moreover, invented roofs. We have seen that Saminarum-Israel, who lived at Tyre, invented the art of building huts. Here we find Technites and Autochthon, the sons of Vulcan and his brother to have invented artistic roofs. Their roof was, doubtless, an improvement upon the old one, at least to such a degree, that if it were made at the present day it would in comparison of the old one be thought worthy of being patented.
The next we meet with in our progress are the children of Technites and Geinos, namely Agros and Agrueros or Agrotes. Agros, in the Greek, means a field; Sadeh, in Hebrew, the same. It appears that this form, meaning a field, has been confounded with the Hebrew form Saddai or Shaddai, meaning the Lord, by the translator of Sanchoniatho’s history. Agrueros is Aypov-^prnq^ the hero, or lord of the field. Agrotes, again, is the man of the field (aypdq), a derivative from the word for field. Sadeh was Punic for field as well as Hebrew ; and Saddai, as said before, was a name of God: the root Sadad (comp. Sud whence Sed an idol) is common to all the Semitic languages. The word Agrueros is sufficient proof that the two terms, Sadeh and Shaddai, were confounded ; for it must be a translation of the ordinary name El-Shaddai, literally God Almighty, in Genesis, or, according to the misinterpretation, the Lord of the field (dypou ^w?). Agros alone is for Shaddai and the so-called brother is the full form of the same name.
The Bene-El and Cabiri or the Giants and Dwarfs, Etc. :
TheBene-El, ” sons of God,” (Gen. VI, 1-4) were the giants ,, sons of El-Shaddi. The explanation of them here as Titans is, therefore, perfectly suitable. The line of the ancient Egyptian kings appears to have been of that primitive large-framed race,* for it is repeatedly said in the history that they were giants and one named Sesochris is said to have been in height five cubits and three palms or over ten feet. The word Aletai means Nomades, by which it would appear the employment of the Phoenicians, in the time indicated, was largely of the pastoral kind. The ancient Egpytian kings, too, of the line of Menes, so called, were of the Shepherd stock. It is thought that the word Nephil, plural Nephilim, as the offspring of those sons of God are styled in Gen. IV., was the Hebrew equivalent of the term Aletai. The Chaldee word Niphla, which means the constellation, Orion, and, in the plural, the greater constellations, may be thought to present some analogy to the idea of the powerful giants.
We come next to Amynos and Magros, of which the first appears to be the same with Amun, builder, the remark about the construction of unwalled villages suiting this derivation. Magros is the God Makar mentioned in the Punic inscriptions. According to Pansanias (X. 12, 2) the Egyptians and Libyans calle d Hercules Makeris; the Libyan kings claimed to be descended from him; he came from Phoenicia. Titanes and Boccoris are mentioned by Arnobius, as Gods of Mauritania, and the latter name occurs in the Mauritanian inscriptions. Near Berytus, in Phoenicia, there is a river Magoras ; and in the same neighborhood Strabo says there is a plain called Magoras, where was, in ancient times, a gigantic dragon. Finally Makar is one of the seven Cabiric Heliads, who, in the Phoenician colonies of Lesbos and Rhodes, slew their pious brother. Magaros, means pasturage, from garos, to pasture, hence the tending of cattle is ascribed to our Magros. He was a pastor.
The next distinguished pair in order are Misor and Sydek, which we have before sufficiently explained as well as Taaut, the son of Mi-sor ; but we will say a few words about the Cabiri who are called in the succeeding history of the Kronidae, “the seven children of Sydek,” and their brother is called -ZEsculapius, “the eighth.” The Cabiri and the deities identified with them are explained by Greeks and Romans as ” the strong,” ” the great.” In Job (XXXIV. 17, XXXVI. 5) Kabbir the strong, is an epithet of God and put in equivalence with Zaddiq, the righteous.
There is no doubt that the Hebrew root is Kabar, meaning the great, the powerful, and since the great and powerful chief is he who passes forward or over in the van of his army, why then Chabar or Chebar means the same, so that the root means the mighty and they that pass over or forward as well. Damascius (Vita Isidori ccxlii. 573) tells us expressly that ” Esculapius was not either a Greek or an Egyptian, but a native Phoenician resident of Berytus. For that to Sadyk there were born children who were called Dioskuri and Cabiri and that to these there was an eighth, Esmun, whom they called “Aesculapius.”
It is reasonably concluded that the name the Phoenicians called those seven brothers was that which Herodotus writes Pataikoi> which was that the Greeks gave to those images which the Phoenicians carried at the poops of their triremes, as representing their patron Gods. Their connection with the art of navigation is implied in that Philo says that they were the first that invented the ship. Herodotus, in his passage about the Pataikoi (III. 37) says further: ” Cambyses also wentinto the temple of Vulcan (at Memphis) and laughed heartily at the image. This figure of Vulcan bears a strong resemblance to the Phoenician Pataikoi : which they put at the head of their triremes. I will describe them for the benefit of those who have not seen them ; they are figures of pygmies (dwarfs). He also went into the temple of the Cabiri which the priests alone were permitted to enter. The images he caused to be burned after he had laughed heartily at them. They are like Vulcan and are said to be his children.” Vulcan is the Ptah of the Egyptian monuments, and evidently was not directly of Egyptian origin. The derivation of the word Ptah is reasonably traced to patach, which in Hebrew signifies to open, and is thus the root of Pataikoi. The daughter of Ptah is Ma, “Truth and Justice,” being the symbol of the universe, the true essence of the creator. Sydek, the Just, the greatest of whose sons, the eighth, is called the fairest of the Gods, the AEsculapius from whose race the discoveries of medicinal recipes and medicinal plants are derived, corresponds with Ptah, the father of the Pataikoi. This Ptah is represented turning the egg on a potter’s disk. He is the opener and as the Semitic Demiurge, opens the cosmic egg, whence he is called Anoigeus.
The Greeks used the term Cabiri to express the Gods worshiped in Samothrace and elsewhere, who were identical with the Corybantes of Crete as well as the Dioskuri (Castor and Polydeuces). With these Pataikoi or Mighty Cabiri, were associated in the idea the numerous Cabiri or great Gods, who were worshiped under other names, as wonder-working deities with secret and bloody ceremonies. The Kabiri in Phoenicia were cosmogonical powers and they were collectively “the eighth” as the soul of the world. The number seven indicates a planetary idea; this, however, not an original but derivative and symbolical form, preceded by the simple solar representation as it again presupposes a cosmogonical one. Although Herodotus does not mention the Kabiri as being seven or eight there is no reason to doubt that they were recognized as of this number; for a God who is identified with Hermes, namely Thoth, the son of Misor, Sydek’s brother is, in Egypt, worshiped as the eighth and bears the same name, Ashmun, as the Phoenician one, Eshmun.
The Dioskuri cannot, perhaps, properly be considered as Kabiri, for their likeness, or that of the twin Gods who are supposed to be identified with them did not stand in the temple with the Samothracian Cabiri, but merely in the entrance of the temple of Ambracia. No Semitic word appears in the Samothracian mysteries of the Cabiri or those of the Phrygio-Trojan Corybantes except in the case of Cadmilos, who appears in the Cabiric festivals as the fourth.He is represented as the assistant of those three Samothracian Cabiri, whom as we learn from the Scholiast of Apollonius (I. 913) the learned Alexandrian Mnaseas called
Axieros — Axiokersa — Axiokersos
and explained as
Demeter — Persephone — ‘Aides
The name is obviously connected with Cadmos. Hence Cadmilos (Casmilos) who is explained as Hermes, is Semitic and the Eshmun — AEsculapius, the revealing, and afterwards the minister of the divine will. This general idea contains the root of the wonderful myth of Cadmos, of which Cadmil and Cadmon are variations or strictly diminutive forms : For his wife Harmonia, dressed in a robe studded with stars and wearing a necklace, representing the universe and the duties they both perform, have a plainly cosmogonical meaning.
Still less does there appear of a Semite connection in the singular and horrid myth of the three brothers, two of whom sacrifice and bury the third, on which occasion all the initiated embrue their hands in the blood of the victim, accompanied doubtless with vows. The one who is sacrificed is stated to have been Dionysus.
Thus far it has been made plain that the Cabiri or Pataikoi beonged to Phoenicia, but were connected with Egypt linguistically and that their oldest root signification is cosmogonical.
To the Cabiri we find to succeed Eliun, called the Most High, and a woman called Behuth, who lived about Byblos, that is, says the interpreters, were worshiped there. Baaltis, the wife of Adonis, was worshiped with her husband in the same sanctuary at Byblus. She is identical with Hastoreth, whom the Greeks call Astarte.
Moreover, the secret worship of the mother of God, called Amma, that is, Em in the Hebrew, in the Egyptian, Ma (the same word read backwards) was especially celebrated in the shrine of Aphaka at Byblus, near the river of Adonis. A lake called Boeth, after the name of the Goddess, is especially mentioned in the commentary of Germanicus upon Aratus.
The true reading for the name of the Goddess of the Byblians, then, is Behuth, i.e., the void, identical with Bohu, empty space, in Gen. I. 2, and with the above mentioned Baau, the wife of Colpiah, at the head of this second cosmogony. Behuth (Bythos) means also the mother’s womb. The fundamental idea of her, as
collected by Movers from the customs of the primeval mother Goddess, was that of the mother of life, the Chaveh (Eve) of Genesis.This pair of deities was worshiped at Byblos as Adoni (Lord) and Baalti (Mistress): and of them was begotten, according to Philo,
Epigeios and Autochthon
This name corresponds with Adam, or Cadam or Cadmon, etc., the first man being implied. Adam, in Genesis, is created by El, the most high God.